Playing any type of musical instrument can cause permanent and irreparable damage to your hearing. Percussion instruments like the drums are much more likely to cause hearing loss than other types of musical instruments. The genre of music will have a dramatic impact on the amount of harm playing drums can cause.
The harm to your hearing is directly caused by the decibel level, frequency, and duration of the exposure of your ears to the sound from your drums kit as you are playing. If you are one of those people who wear good hearing protection every time that you play, you can mitigate the amount of permanent damage to your hearing.